NCCN: 美国国家综合癌症网络(NCCN,National Comprehensive Cancer Network).

https://www.nccn.org/

https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/default.aspx
该指南包含了以下中枢神经系统肿瘤的诊治指南:
Adult Low-Grade Infiltrative Supratentorial Astrocytoma/Oligodendroglioma (excluding pilocytic astrocytoma)
Anaplastic Gliomas/Glioblastoma
Adult Intracranial Ependymoma
Adult Medulloblastoma
Primary CNS Lymphoma
Primary Spinal Cord Tumors
Meningiomas
Limited Brain Metastases
Extensive Brain Metastases
Leptomeningeal Metastases
Metastatic Spine Tumors

The scope and purpose of this work is 2-fold: to synthesize the available evidence and to translate it into recommendations. This document provides recommendations only when there is evidence to support them. As such, they do not constitute a complete protocol for clinical use. Our intention is that these recommendations be used by others to develop treatment protocols, which necessarily need to incorporate consensus and clinical judgment in areas where current evidence is lacking or insufficient. We think it is important to have evidence-based recommendations to clarify what aspects of practice currently can and cannot be supported by evidence, to encourage use of evidence-based treatments that exist, and to encourage creativity in treatment and research in areas where evidence does not exist. The communities of neurosurgery and neuro-intensive care have been early pioneers and supporters of evidence-based medicine and plan to continue in this endeavor. The complete guideline document, which summarizes and evaluates the literature for each topic, and supplemental appendices (A-I) are available online at https://www.braintrauma.org/coma/guidelines

Carney N, Totten AM, O’Reilly C et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. Brain Trauma Foundation . Available at: https://braintrauma.org/uploads/03/12/Guidelines_for_Management_of_Severe_TBI_4th_Edition.pdf. Accessed November 16, 2017.

第六节 脑卒中的外科治疗
一、缺血性脑卒中的外科治疗
脑的供应动脉狭窄或闭塞可引起缺血性脑卒中,严重者可引起死亡。缺血性脑卒中的发病率高于出血性脑卒中,约占脑卒中总数的60%-70%。颈内动脉和椎动脉都可出现闭塞和狭窄,年龄多在40岁以上,男性较女性多。颈内动脉或椎动脉狭窄和闭塞的主要原因是动脉粥样硬化。另外,胶原性疾病或动脉炎引起的动脉内膜增生和肥厚,颈动脉外伤,肿瘤压迫颈动脉,小儿颈部淋巴结炎和扁桃体炎伴发的颈动脉血栓,以及先天颈动脉扭曲等,均可引起颈内动脉狭窄和闭塞。颈椎病骨质增生或颅底陷入压迫椎动脉,也可造成椎动脉缺血。



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